A an ancient leg bone
Humans Interbred Neanderthals 50,000 Years Ago: The DNA in the man’s femur shows that he had some Neanderthal ancestors. Credit: Bence Viola/Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. Carbon dating and DNA sequence was conducted on the shaft of a thighbone found by an artist and mammoth ivory collector on the left bank of the river Irtysh near the settlement of Ust’-Ishim in western Siberia in 2008.
The remains changed several hands before they eventually reached the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Germany, where Prof Svante Paabo and colleagues pioneered methods to extract DNA from ancient human remains and read its genetic code. They found the remains belong to a person who lived some 45,000 years ago at a time when modern humans were only beginning to expand across Europe and Asia.
The earliest modern human:
This reconstruction of another ancient modern human found in Romania 43,000 years ago gives us a glimpse of how the Siberian man might have looked like. Humans Interbred Neanderthals 50,000 Years Ago: The analysis revealed several important insights like the ancient’s diet that included plants or plant eaters and fish or other aquatic life.
Most importantly, the DNA sequence shows that the ancient human shared unshuffled chunks of DNA from a now extinct species of human, Neanderthals who evolved outside of Africa. Namely, 2.3 percent of his DNA came from Neanderthals, a bit higher than found in modern humans living outside Africa today — a level that ranges from 1.7 to 2.1 percent — but too small a difference to be statistically significant. The new analysis of the date of human-Neanderthal mixing dramatically narrowed the likely range to between 50,000 and 60,000 years ago, a much tighter window than the previous range of between 37,000 and 86,000 years ago.
“Our analysis shows that modern humans had already interbred with Neanderthals then and we can determine when that first happened much more precisely than we could before,” said Paabo.
Humans Interbred Neanderthals 50,000 Years Ago: Moreover, the Siberian man was equally related to West European hunter-gatherers, North Asian hunter-gatherers, East Asians, as well as to the natives of the Andaman Islands off South Asia.
Previous studies suggested there was an early split of people who followed a coastal route to Australia, New Guinea and coastal Asia, however the present findings reported in Nature do not support them.
Humans Interbred Neanderthals 50,000 Years Ago: We present the high-quality genome sequence of a ~45,000-year-old modern human male from Siberia. This individual derives from a population that lived before—or simultaneously with—the separation of the populations in western and eastern Eurasia and carries a similar amount of Neanderthal ancestry as present-day Eurasians. However, the genomic segments of Neanderthal ancestry are substantially longer than those observed in present-day individuals, indicating that Neanderthal gene flow into the ancestors of this individual occurred 7,000–13,000 years before he lived. We estimate an autosomal mutation rate of 0.4 × 10−9 to 0.6 × 10−9 per site per year, a Y chromosomal mutation rate of 0.7 × 10−9 to 0.9 × 10−9 per site per year based on the additional substitutions that have occurred in present-day non-Africans compared to this genome, and a mitochondrial mutation rate of 1.8 × 10−8 to 3.2 × 10−8 per site per year based on the age of the bone.
Read the full article
Additional access options:
- Diaphyseal cross-sectional geometry of Near Eastern Middle Paleolithic humans: the femur. J. Archaeol. Sci. 26, 409–424 (1999) &
- Reliability of nitrogen content (%N) and carbon:nitrogen atomic ratios (C:N) as indicators of collagen preservation suitable for radiocarbon dating. Radiocarbon 54, 879–886 (2012) et al.
- Out of Africa: modern human origins special feature: isotopic evidence for the diets of European Neanderthals and early modern humans. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 106, 16034–16039 (2009) &
- A high-coverage genome sequence from an archaic Denisovan individual. Science 338, 222–226 (2012) et al.
- A revised timescale for human evolution based on ancient mitochondrial genomes. Curr. Biol. 23, 553–559 (2013) et al.
- A nomenclature system for the tree of human Y-chromosomal binary haplogroups. Genome Res. 12, 339–348 (2002)
- A Bayesian phylogenetic method to estimate unknown sequence ages. Mol. Biol. Evol. 28, 879–887 (2011) et al.
- Ancient admixture in human history. Genetics 192, 1065–1093 (2012) et al.
- Derived immune and ancestral pigmentation alleles in a 7,000-year-old Mesolithic European. Nature 507, 225–228 (2014) et al.
- Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans. Nature 505, 87–91 (2014) et al.
- Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans. Nature 513, 409–413 (2014) et al.
- The complete genome sequence of a Neanderthal from the Altai Mountains. Nature 505, 43–49 (2014) et al.
- Inference of human population history from individual whole-genome sequences. Nature 475, 493–496 (2011) &
- Revising the human mutation rate: implications for understanding human evolution. Nature Rev. Genet. 13, 745–753 (2012) &
- Rate of de novo mutations and the importance of father’s age to disease risk. Nature 488, 471–475 (2012) et al.
- Generation times in wild chimpanzees and gorillas suggest earlier divergence times in great ape and human evolution. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 109, 15716–15721 (2012) et al.
- The bonobo genome compared with the chimpanzee and human genomes. Nature 486, 527–531 (2012) et al.
- Human Y chromosome base-substitution mutation rate measured by direct sequencing in a deep-rooting pedigree. Curr. Biol. 19, 1453–1457 (2009) et al.
- Comparative analysis of chimpanzee and human Y chromosomes unveils complex evolutionary pathway. Nature Genet. 38, 158–167 (2006) et al.
- Genome-wide single-cell analysis of recombination activity and de novo mutation rates in human sperm. Cell 150, 402–412 (2012) , , &
- The date of interbreeding between Neandertals and modern humans. PLoS Genet. 8, e1002947 (2012) , , , &
- Genetic history of an archaic hominin group from Denisova Cave in Siberia. Nature 468, 1053–1060 (2010) et al.
- Denisova admixture and the first modern human dispersals into Southeast Asia and Oceania. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 89, 516–528 (2011) et al.
- Archaic human ancestry in East Asia. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 108, 18301–18306 (2011) &
- Cross-cultural estimation of the human generation interval for use in genetics-based population divergence studies. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 128, 415–423 (2005)
- 1939) & The Stone Age of Mount Carmel Vol. 2 (Clarendon, Oxford,
- 319 (Éditions du CNRS, 1981) Les Hommes Fossiles de Qafzeh (Israel)
- An Aboriginal Australian genome reveals separate human dispersals into Asia. Science 334, 94–98 (2011) et al.
- The earliest modern human colonization of Europe. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 109, 13471–13472 (2012)
- The role of climate in the spread of modern humans into Europe. Quat. Sci. Rev. 30, 273–279 (2011) et al.
- Dating the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition at Kara-Bom. Curr. Anthropol. 34, 452–458 (1993) , &
- Rethinking the initial Upper Paleolithic. Quat. Int. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2014.05.040 (2014) &
- Calibration for archaeological and environmental terrestrial samples in the time range 26–50 ka cal bp. Radiocarbon. 55, 2021–2027 (2013) , &
- IntCal13 and Marine13 radiocarbon age calibration curves 0–50,000 Years cal bp. Radiocarbon 55, 1869–1887 (2009) et al.
- Improved base calling for the Illumina Genome Analyzer using machine learning strategies. Genome Biol. 10, R83 (2009) , &
- Fast and accurate short read alignment with Burrows–Wheeler transform. Bioinformatics 25, 1754–1760 (2009) &