A an ancient leg bone
The earliest modern human:
“Our analysis shows that modern humans had already interbred with Neanderthals then and we can determine when that first happened much more precisely than we could before,” said Paabo.
Humans Interbred Neanderthals 50,000 Years Ago: Moreover, the Siberian man was equally related to West European hunter-gatherers, North Asian hunter-gatherers, East Asians, as well as to the natives of the Andaman Islands off South Asia.
Previous studies suggested there was an early split of people who followed a coastal route to Australia, New Guinea and coastal Asia, however the present findings reported in Nature do not support them.
Humans Interbred Neanderthals 50,000 Years Ago: We present the high-quality genome sequence of a ~45,000-year-old modern human male from Siberia. This individual derives from a population that lived before—or simultaneously with—the separation of the populations in western and eastern Eurasia and carries a similar amount of Neanderthal ancestry as present-day Eurasians. However, the genomic segments of Neanderthal ancestry are substantially longer than those observed in present-day individuals, indicating that Neanderthal gene flow into the ancestors of this individual occurred 7,000–13,000 years before he lived. We estimate an autosomal mutation rate of 0.4 × 10−9 to 0.6 × 10−9 per site per year, a Y chromosomal mutation rate of 0.7 × 10−9 to 0.9 × 10−9 per site per year based on the additional substitutions that have occurred in present-day non-Africans compared to this genome, and a mitochondrial mutation rate of 1.8 × 10−8 to 3.2 × 10−8 per site per year based on the age of the bone.
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