Recently, an international team of researchers published a paper in Nature in which they detail the genome analysis of a Neanderthal and a Siberian Denisovan, as well as the sequences of chromosome 21 of a Neanderthal found in the ‘Sidrón’ cave in Asturias, Northern Spain, and of another from Vindija, Croatia. They found that the Neanderthal genome from Siberia has sequences resembling those in humans.
The remains of the Neanderthal were found in a cave in the Altai Mountains in southern Siberia, near the Russia-Mongolia border. The other two Neanderthals, as well as the Siberian Denisovan, did not carry these modern human genes.
The modern human DNA sequences in the Altai Neanderthal appear to derive from a modern human group that separated early from other humans, “about the time present-day African populations diverged from one another, around 200,000 years ago,” says co-author Ilan Gronau, who is now at the Herzliya Interdisciplinary Center, Israel.
Neanderthals Exchanged Human Genes 100,000 Years Ago; Without a doubt, these findings will have profound implications on the evolutionary model anthropologists use to explain how we humans got to where we are today. For some time, there has been reason to believe there had been an earlier migration out of Africa judging from archaeological findings like those found at Skhul and Qafzeh in Israel.
In 2014, scientists found early homo sapiens teeth dated from 100,000 years ago in what is today China. “These fellows were taller and stronger than us. And they retained primitive features in mandibles and teeth,” Antonio Rosas from the Spanish Natural Science Museum told ZME Science.
The accepted view that humans evolved in Africa 200,000 years ago and migrated 65,000 years ago only is starting to crumble. Earlier migration waves, maybe a couple, made their way to Europe and Asia. Some went extinct, others interbred.
Neanderthals Exchanged Human Genes 100,000 Years Ago; We present the high-quality genome sequence of a ~45,000-year-old modern human male from Siberia. This individual derives from a population that lived before—or simultaneously with—the separation of the populations in western and eastern Eurasia and carries a similar amount of Neanderthal ancestry as present-day Eurasians. However, the genomic segments of Neanderthal ancestry are substantially longer than those observed in present-day individuals, indicating that Neanderthal gene flow into the ancestors of this individual occurred 7,000–13,000 years before he lived. We estimate an autosomal mutation rate of 0.4 × 10−9 to 0.6 × 10−9 per site per year, a Y chromosomal mutation rate of 0.7 × 10−9 to 0.9 × 10−9 per site per year based on the additional substitutions that have occurred in present-day non-Africans compared to this genome, and a mitochondrial mutation rate of 1.8 × 10−8 to 3.2 × 10−8 per site per year based on the age of the bone.
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